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Doris--基础--13.2--SQl函数--日期函数
发布时间:2024-01-16 21:03
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Doris–基础–13.2–SQl函数–日期函数


1、CONVERT_TZ(DATETIME dt, VARCHAR from_tz, VARCHAR to_tz)

转换datetime值dt,从 from_tz 转到 to_tz 时区,并返回的结果值。
如果参数无效该函数返回NULL。

MySQL [test_db]> select convert_tz('2019-08-01 13:21:03', 'Asia/Shanghai', 'America/Los_Angeles');
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| convert_tz('2019-08-01 13:21:03', 'Asia/Shanghai', 'America/Los_Angeles') |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2019-07-31 22:21:03                                                       |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select convert_tz('2019-08-01 13:21:03', '+08:00', 'America/Los_Angeles');
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
| convert_tz('2019-08-01 13:21:03', '+08:00', 'America/Los_Angeles') |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2019-07-31 22:21:03                                                |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

2、CURDATE()

获取当前的日期,以DATE类型返回

MySQL [test_db]> SELECT CURDATE();
+------------+
| curdate()  |
+------------+
| 2023-02-26 |
+------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> SELECT CURDATE() + 0;
+----------------+
| curdate() + 0  |
+----------------+
| 20230226000000 |
+----------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

3、CURRENT_TIMESTAMP()

获得当前的时间,以Datetime类型返回

MySQL [test_db]> select current_timestamp();
+---------------------+
| current_timestamp() |
+---------------------+
| 2023-02-26 16:09:42 |
+---------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

4、current_time()

获得当前的时间,以TIME类型返回

MySQL [test_db]> select current_time();
+----------------+
| current_time() |
+----------------+
| 16:09:58       |
+----------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


5、DATE_ADD(DATETIME date,INTERVAL expr type)

向日期添加指定的时间间隔。
date 参数是合法的日期表达式。
expr 参数是您希望添加的时间间隔。
type 参数可以是下列值:YEAR, MONTH, DAY, HOUR, MINUTE, SECOND

MySQL [test_db]> select date_add('2020-11-01 23:59:59', INTERVAL 2 DAY);
+-------------------------------------------------+
| date_add('2020-11-01 23:59:59', INTERVAL 2 DAY) |
+-------------------------------------------------+
| 2020-11-03 23:59:59                             |
+-------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

6、DATE_FORMAT(DATETIME date, VARCHAR format)

将日期类型按照format的类型转化为字符串, 当前支持最大128字节的字符串,如果返回值长度超过128,则返回NULL
date 参数是合法的日期。
format 规定日期/时间的输出格式。

可以使用的格式有:
%a | 缩写星期名
%b | 缩写月名
%c | 月,数值
%D | 带有英文前缀的月中的天
%d | 月的天,数值(00-31)
%e | 月的天,数值(0-31)
%f | 微秒
%H | 小时 (00-23)
%h | 小时 (01-12)
%I | 小时 (01-12)
%i | 分钟,数值(00-59)
%j | 年的天 (001-366)
%k | 小时 (0-23)
%l | 小时 (1-12)
%M | 月名
%m | 月,数值(00-12)
%p | AM 或 PM
%r | 时间,12-小时(hh:mm:ss AM 或 PM)
%S | 秒(00-59)
%s | 秒(00-59)
%T | 时间, 24-小时 (hh:mm:ss)
%U | 周 (00-53) 星期日是一周的第一天
%u | 周 (00-53) 星期一是一周的第一天
%V | 周 (01-53) 星期日是一周的第一天,与 %X 使用
%v | 周 (01-53) 星期一是一周的第一天,与 %x 使用
%W | 星期名
%w | 周的天 (0=星期日, 6=星期六)
%X | 年,其中的星期日是周的第一天,4 位,与 %V 使用
%x | 年,其中的星期一是周的第一天,4 位,与 %v 使用
%Y | 年,4 位
%y | 年,2 位
%% | 用于表示 %

MySQL [test_db]> select date_format('2020-10-04 22:23:00', '%W %M %Y');
+------------------------------------------------+
| date_format('2020-10-04 22:23:00', '%W %M %Y') |
+------------------------------------------------+
| 星期日 十月 2020                               |
+------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select date_format('2020-10-04 22:23:00', '%H:%i:%s');
+------------------------------------------------+
| date_format('2020-10-04 22:23:00', '%H:%i:%s') |
+------------------------------------------------+
| 22:23:00                                       |
+------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select date_format('2020-10-04 22:23:00', '%D %y %a %d %m %b %j');
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| date_format('2020-10-04 22:23:00', '%D %y %a %d %m %b %j') |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| 4th 20 Sun 04 10 Oct 278                                   |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select date_format('2020-10-04 22:23:00', '%H %k %I %r %T %S %w');
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| date_format('2020-10-04 22:23:00', '%H %k %I %r %T %S %w') |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| 22 22 10 10:23:00 PM 22:23:00 00 0                         |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select date_format('2020-01-01 00:00:00', '%X %V'); 
+---------------------------------------------+
| date_format('2020-01-01 00:00:00', '%X %V') |
+---------------------------------------------+
| 2019 52                                     |
+---------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select date_format('2020-06-01', '%d');
+------------------------------------------+
| date_format('2020-06-01 00:00:00', '%d') |
+------------------------------------------+
| 01                                       |
+------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select date_format('2020-06-01', '%%%d');
+--------------------------------------------+
| date_format('2020-06-01 00:00:00', '%%%d') |
+--------------------------------------------+
| %01                                        |
+--------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

7、DATE_SUB(DATETIME date,INTERVAL expr type)

从日期减去指定的时间间隔
date 参数是合法的日期表达式。
expr 参数是您希望添加的时间间隔。
type 参数可以是下列值:YEAR, MONTH, DAY, HOUR, MINUTE, SECOND

MySQL [test_db]> select date_sub('2010-11-30 23:59:59', INTERVAL 2 DAY);
+-------------------------------------------------+
| date_sub('2010-11-30 23:59:59', INTERVAL 2 DAY) |
+-------------------------------------------------+
| 2010-11-28 23:59:59                             |
+-------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

8、DATEDIFF(DATETIME expr1,DATETIME expr2)

计算expr1 - expr2,结果精确到天。
expr1 和 expr2 参数是合法的日期或日期/时间表达式。
注释:只有值的日期部分参与计算。

MySQL [test_db]> select datediff(CAST('2020-12-31 23:59:59' AS DATETIME), CAST('2020-12-30' AS DATETIME));
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| datediff(CAST('2020-12-31 23:59:59' AS DATETIME), CAST('2020-12-30' AS DATETIME)) |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                                 1 |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

MySQL [test_db]>  
MySQL [test_db]> select datediff(CAST('2020-11-30 23:59:59' AS DATETIME), CAST('2020-12-31' AS DATETIME));
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| datediff(CAST('2020-11-30 23:59:59' AS DATETIME), CAST('2020-12-31' AS DATETIME)) |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                               -31 |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

9、DAY(DATETIME date)

获得日期中的天信息,返回值范围从1-31。
参数为Date或者Datetime类型

MySQL [test_db]> select day('2020-01-31'); 
+----------------------------+
| day('2020-01-31 00:00:00') |
+----------------------------+
|                         31 |
+----------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

 

10、DAYNAME(DATE)

返回日期对应的日期名字
参数为Date或者Datetime类型

MySQL [test_db]> select dayname('2020-02-03 00:00:00');   
+--------------------------------+
| dayname('2020-02-03 00:00:00') |
+--------------------------------+
| Monday                         |
+--------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

11、DAYOFMONTH(DATETIME date)

获得日期中的天信息,返回值范围从1-31。
参数为Date或者Datetime类型

MySQL [test_db]> select dayofmonth('2020-01-31');
+-----------------------------------+
| dayofmonth('2020-01-31 00:00:00') |
+-----------------------------------+
|                                31 |
+-----------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

 

12、dayofweek(DATETIME date)

DAYOFWEEK函数返回日期的工作日索引值,即星期日为1,星期一为2,星期六为7
参数为Date或者Datetime类型或者可以cast为Date或者Datetime类型的数字

MySQL [test_db]> select dayofweek('2020-06-25');
+----------------------------------+
| dayofweek('2020-06-25 00:00:00') |
+----------------------------------+
|                                5 |
+----------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

 
MySQL [test_db]> select dayofweek(cast(20190620 as date)); 
+-----------------------------------+
| dayofweek(CAST(20190620 AS DATE)) |
+-----------------------------------+
|                                 5 |
+-----------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)


13、DAYOFYEAR(DATETIME date)

获得日期中对应当年中的哪一天。
参数为Date或者Datetime类型

MySQL [test_db]> select dayofyear('2020-02-03 00:00:00');
+----------------------------------+
| dayofyear('2020-02-03 00:00:00') |
+----------------------------------+
|                               34 |
+----------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

14、FROM_DAYS(INT N)

通过距离0000-01-01日的天数计算出哪一天

MySQL [test_db]> select from_days(730669);
+-------------------+
| from_days(730669) |
+-------------------+
| 2000-07-03        |
+-------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)



15、FROM_UNIXTIME(INT unix_timestamp[, VARCHAR string_format])

将 unix 时间戳转化为对应的 time 格式,返回的格式由 string_format 指定
默认为 yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss ,也支持date_format中的format格式
传入的是整形,返回的是字符串类型
目前 string_format 支持格式:

%Y:年。例:2014,1900
%m:月。例:12,09
%d:日。例:11,01
%H:时。例:23,01,12
%i:分。例:05,11
%s:秒。例:59,01

其余 string_format 格式是非法的,返回NULL
如果给定的时间戳小于 0 或大于 253402271999,则返回 NULL。即时间戳范围是:
1970-01-01 00:00:00 ~ 9999-12-31 23:59:59

MySQL [test_db]> select from_unixtime(1196440219);
+---------------------------+
| from_unixtime(1196440219) |
+---------------------------+
| 2007-12-01 00:30:19       |
+---------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select from_unixtime(1196440219, 'yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss');
+------------------------------------------------+
| from_unixtime(1196440219, '%Y-%m-%d %H:%i:%s') |
+------------------------------------------------+
| 2007-12-01 00:30:19                            |
+------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select from_unixtime(1196440219, '%Y-%m-%d');
+---------------------------------------+
| from_unixtime(1196440219, '%Y-%m-%d') |
+---------------------------------------+
| 2007-12-01                            |
+---------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select from_unixtime(1196440219, '%Y-%m-%d %H:%i:%s');
+------------------------------------------------+
| from_unixtime(1196440219, '%Y-%m-%d %H:%i:%s') |
+------------------------------------------------+
| 2007-12-01 00:30:19                            |
+------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

16、HOUR(DATETIME date)

获得日期中的小时的信息,返回值范围从0-23。
参数为Date或者Datetime类型

MySQL [test_db]> select hour('2018-12-31 23:59:59');
+-----------------------------+
| hour('2018-12-31 23:59:59') |
+-----------------------------+
|                          23 |
+-----------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


17、MINUTE(DATETIME date)

获得日期中的分钟的信息,返回值范围从0-59。
参数为Date或者Datetime类型

MySQL [test_db]> select minute('2018-12-31 23:59:59');
+-------------------------------+
| minute('2018-12-31 23:59:59') |
+-------------------------------+
|                            59 |
+-------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


18、MONTH(DATETIME date)

返回时间类型中的月份信息,范围是1, 12
参数为Date或者Datetime类型

MySQL [test_db]> select month('1987-01-01');
+------------------------------+
| month('1987-01-01 00:00:00') |
+------------------------------+
|                            1 |
+------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

19、MONTHNAME(DATE)

返回日期对应的月份名字
参数为Date或者Datetime类型


MySQL [test_db]> select monthname('2008-02-03 00:00:00');
+----------------------------------+
| monthname('2008-02-03 00:00:00') |
+----------------------------------+
| February                         |
+----------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)


20、NOW()

获得当前的时间,以Datetime类型返回

MySQL [test_db]> select now();
+---------------------+
| now()               |
+---------------------+
| 2023-02-26 16:19:27 |
+---------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

21、SECOND(DATETIME date)

获得日期中的秒的信息,返回值范围从0-59。
参数为Date或者Datetime类型

MySQL [test_db]> select second('2018-12-31 23:59:59');
+-------------------------------+
| second('2018-12-31 23:59:59') |
+-------------------------------+
|                            59 |
+-------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

22、STR_TO_DATE(VARCHAR str, VARCHAR format)

通过format指定的方式将str转化为DATE类型,如果转化结果不对返回NULL
支持的format格式与date_format一致

MySQL [test_db]> select str_to_date('2020-12-21 12:34:56', '%Y-%m-%d %H:%i:%s');
+---------------------------------------------------------+
| str_to_date('2020-12-21 12:34:56', '%Y-%m-%d %H:%i:%s') |
+---------------------------------------------------------+
| 2020-12-21 12:34:56                                     |
+---------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select str_to_date('2020-12-21 12:34%3A56', '%Y-%m-%d %H:%i%%3A%s');
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
| str_to_date('2020-12-21 12:34%3A56', '%Y-%m-%d %H:%i%%3A%s') |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2020-12-21 12:34:56                                          |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select str_to_date('202042 Monday', '%X%V %W');
+-----------------------------------------+
| str_to_date('202042 Monday', '%X%V %W') |
+-----------------------------------------+
| 2020-10-19                              |
+-----------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select str_to_date("2020-09-01", "%Y-%m-%d %H:%i:%s");
+------------------------------------------------+
| str_to_date('2020-09-01', '%Y-%m-%d %H:%i:%s') |
+------------------------------------------------+
| 2020-09-01 00:00:00                            |
+------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

23、TIMEDIFF(DATETIME expr1, DATETIME expr2)

TIMEDIFF返回两个DATETIME之间的差值
TIMEDIFF函数返回表示为时间值的expr1 - expr2的结果,返回值为TIME类型

MySQL [test_db]> SELECT TIMEDIFF(now(),utc_timestamp());
+----------------------------------+
| timediff(now(), utc_timestamp()) |
+----------------------------------+
| 08:00:00                         |
+----------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> SELECT TIMEDIFF('2020-07-11 16:59:30','2019-07-11 16:59:21');
+--------------------------------------------------------+
| timediff('2020-07-11 16:59:30', '2019-07-11 16:59:21') |
+--------------------------------------------------------+
| 8784:00:09                                             |
+--------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> SELECT TIMEDIFF('2020-01-01 00:00:00', NULL);
+---------------------------------------+
| timediff('2020-01-01 00:00:00', NULL) |
+---------------------------------------+
| NULL                                  |
+---------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

24、TIMESTAMPADD(unit, interval, DATETIME datetime_expr)

将整数表达式间隔添加到日期或日期时间表达式datetime_expr中。
interval的单位由unit参数给出,它应该是下列值之一:
SECOND, MINUTE, HOUR, DAY, WEEK, MONTH, or YEAR。

MySQL [test_db]> SELECT TIMESTAMPADD(MINUTE,1,'2020-01-02');
+------------------------------------------------+
| timestampadd(MINUTE, 1, '2020-01-02 00:00:00') |
+------------------------------------------------+
| 2020-01-02 00:01:00                            |
+------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> SELECT TIMESTAMPADD(WEEK,1,'2020-01-02');
+----------------------------------------------+
| timestampadd(WEEK, 1, '2020-01-02 00:00:00') |
+----------------------------------------------+
| 2020-01-09 00:00:00                          |
+----------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

25、TIMESTAMPDIFF(unit,DATETIME datetime_expr1, DATETIME datetime_expr2)

返回datetime_expr2−datetime_expr1,其中datetime_expr1和datetime_expr2是日期或日期时间表达式。
结果(整数)的单位由unit参数给出。interval的单位由unit参数给出,它应该是下列值之一:
SECOND, MINUTE, HOUR, DAY, WEEK, MONTH, or YEAR

MySQL [test_db]> SELECT TIMESTAMPDIFF(MONTH,'2003-02-01','2003-05-01');
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
| timestampdiff(MONTH, '2003-02-01 00:00:00', '2003-05-01 00:00:00') |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                  3 |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> SELECT TIMESTAMPDIFF(YEAR,'2002-05-01','2001-01-01');
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| timestampdiff(YEAR, '2002-05-01 00:00:00', '2001-01-01 00:00:00') |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                -1 |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> SELECT TIMESTAMPDIFF(MINUTE,'2003-02-01','2003-05-01 12:05:55');
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| timestampdiff(MINUTE, '2003-02-01 00:00:00', '2003-05-01 12:05:55') |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                              128885 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

26、TO_DAYS(DATETIME date)

返回date距离0000-01-01的天数
参数为Date或者Datetime类型

MySQL [test_db]> select to_days('2007-10-07');
+-----------------------+
| to_days('2007-10-07') |
+-----------------------+
|                733321 |
+-----------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

27、UNIX_TIMESTAMP()

将 Date 或者 Datetime 类型转化为 unix 时间戳。
如果没有参数,则是将当前的时间转化为时间戳。
参数需要是 Date 或者 Datetime 类型。
对于在 1970-01-01 00:00:00 之前或 2038-01-19 03:14:07 之后的时间,该函数将返回 0。
Format 的格式请参阅 date_format 函数的格式说明。
该函数受时区影响。

MySQL [test_db]> select unix_timestamp();
+------------------+
| unix_timestamp() |
+------------------+
|       1677399817 |
+------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select unix_timestamp('2007-11-30 10:30:19');
+---------------------------------------+
| unix_timestamp('2007-11-30 10:30:19') |
+---------------------------------------+
|                            1196389819 |
+---------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select unix_timestamp('2007-11-30 10:30-19', '%Y-%m-%d %H:%i-%s');
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| unix_timestamp('2007-11-30 10:30-19', '%Y-%m-%d %H:%i-%s') |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                 1196389819 |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select unix_timestamp('2007-11-30 10:30%3A19', '%Y-%m-%d %H:%i%%3A%s');
+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
| unix_timestamp('2007-11-30 10:30%3A19', '%Y-%m-%d %H:%i%%3A%s') |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                      1196389819 |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

MySQL [test_db]> select unix_timestamp('1969-01-01 00:00:00');
+---------------------------------------+
| unix_timestamp('1969-01-01 00:00:00') |
+---------------------------------------+
|                                     0 |
+---------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


28、UTC_TIMESTAMP()

返回当前UTC日期和时间在 “YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS” 或
"YYYYMMDDHHMMSS"格式的一个值
根据该函数是否用在字符串或数字语境中

MySQL [test_db]> select utc_timestamp(),utc_timestamp() + 1;
+---------------------+---------------------+
| utc_timestamp()     | utc_timestamp() + 1 |
+---------------------+---------------------+
| 2023-02-26 08:24:03 |      20230226082404 |
+---------------------+---------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

29、WEEKOFYEAR(DATETIME date)

获得一年中的第几周
参数为Date或者Datetime类型

MySQL [test_db]> select weekofyear('2023-02-20 00:00:00');
+-----------------------------------+
| weekofyear('2023-02-20 00:00:00') |
+-----------------------------------+
|                                 8 |
+-----------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

30、YEAR(DATETIME date)

返回date类型的year部分,范围从1000-9999
参数为Date或者Datetime类型

MySQL [test_db]> select year('1987-01-01');
+-----------------------------+
| year('1987-01-01 00:00:00') |
+-----------------------------+
|                        1987 |
+-----------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)